Phase II Enzymes - MicroTrace Minerals

Phase II Enzymes

Needed material: 1ml of EDTA blood or 5 drops whole blood on filter paper or a gum swap.

Testing for genetic polymorphisms is recommended when toxic exposure is high, especially to carcinogenic substances.

Phase II reactions follow Phase I reactions. Also known as conjugation reactions (e.g. with gluthation or amino acids or sulfonates), the Phase II system is an important defense mechanism against intake of toxins. The Gluthation Transferases and N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) belong to the group of Phase II Enzymes.

A reduced phase II detoxification leads to the accumulation of toxins. Gene variants in the glutathione S-transferases (GST) may lead to poor management of the extremely radical intermediates from the Phase 1 responses and thereby transmit a predisposition for diseases associated with oxidative stress.