Whole blood / Serum / Plasma

Whole blood is the material of choice. With the use of certified metal-free collection tubes, external contamination is virtually eliminated.

We request blood in metal-free tubes for testing.

Ask for test kits.


Sample Submission Sheet

Fill out and send with sample. Regular mail or air mail is sufficient. Freezing is not needed, but make sure sample is adequately protected to prevent breakage.

Heavy Metals in Horse Blood, Serum, and Feed

Heavy Metals in Horse Blood, Serum, and Feed in
Minas Gerais, Brazil

Leandro Maia,a Maria Verônica de Souza, MV, MS, DS,a Raphael Bragança
Alves Fernandes, BS, MS, DS,b Maurício Paulo Ferreira Fontes, BS, MS, PhD,b
Matheus Werner de Souza Vianna,a and Walcrisley Vercelli Luz, BS, MSb


Pollution is a subject of worldwide concern and discussion
and various areas of science are seeking to integrate
their knowledge in an attempt to improve understanding
of the harmful effects of modern human
activities. Thus, the objective of the current study was
to assess the potential for using the horse as a bio-indicator
of environmental pollution. Blood and serum
samples from 120 horses from locations with different
degrees of urbanization and industrialization and the
feeds used for these animals were analyzed to determine
their heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Zn) content.
The data obtained were compared. The results did
not show increases in heavy metal concentration in the
blood and serum of the horses with the intensification
of urbanization and industrialization around the farms.
Only Cd, as determined in the blood of the animals,
showed a certain potential for using horses as bio-indicators
of environmental pollution. The data for sex,
age, and chemical composition of the foodstuffs supplied
to the animals were not determinants in explaining
the variation in the concentrations of heavy metals